WASHINGTON -- Former U.S. Sen. Ted Stevens was the longest-serving Republican U.S. senator in history and a doting father and grandfather whose history was intertwined with that of the young state he so fiercely defended.
"I'd put him pretty much at the top of the people who have helped shape Alaska. He's right up there with James Wickersham and Sheldon Jackson and Bob Bartlett," said Stephen Haycox, an author and professor of history at the University of Alaska Anchorage.
Stevens, from a top spot in the Interior Department, led the push in the Eisenhower administration to make the Alaska territory a state. He pushed the Alaska Native land claims act through Congress, shepherded the trans-Alaska oil pipeline past daunting obstacles there and rewrote the landmark fisheries laws that bear his name.
He chaired the powerful Appropriations Committee, sending huge amounts of money to his home state. Much of it went to rural Alaska through efforts including the Denali Commission, an agency that parceled out about a billion dollars for infrastructure in the Bush since its creation by Stevens a decade ago.
Oliver Leavitt, a Barrow whaling captain and former chairman of Arctic Slope Regional Corp., said rural Alaska would "still be a third-world country without him."
"He put so much money into the water and sewer. He did so many things, he did so many small things that meant an awful lot for the different communities throughout the (North) Slope. The beach erosions, the water and sewer problems," said Leavitt, who has been friends with Stevens since the 1970s.
Stevens, 86, whose career in public service began as a federal prosecutor in Fairbanks, was a World War II veteran who piloted transport planes over the Himalayas to resupply Chinese troops fighting the Japanese.
"A decorated World War II veteran, Senator Ted Stevens devoted his career to serving the people of Alaska and fighting for our men and women in uniform," President Barack Obama said in a written statement.
The accident that claimed Stevens' life came 32 years after he survived another fatal airplane crash, which killed his first wife and four others.
" I have lost my brother," said Sen. Daniel Inouye, D-Hawaii, a fellow World War II veteran and close friend to Stevens.
Stevens' 40-year Senate career came to an end in 2008. Scandal-weary Alaska voters voted by a thin margin to replace Stevens -- who was on trial in Washington on corruption charges in the weeks leading up to that year's election -- with Anchorage Mayor Mark Begich, a Democrat.
It was a decision that spared Stevens' fellow senators from an embarrassing expulsion vote after a jury found him guilty of hiding gifts on his federal financial disclosure forms. The jury's verdict was a humiliating defeat for a former prosecutor and World War II aviator who began his career in public service in Fairbanks as a U.S. attorney.
Stevens continued to appeal the jury's decision, and also sought a pardon in the final days of the Bush administration. However, it was President Barack Obama's new attorney general, Eric Holder, who helped clear the former senator's name. Five months later, Holder asked that the indictment against the former senator be dismissed, citing evidence of prosecutorial misconduct.
Haycox said he doesn't think Stevens' legal scandals will play very strongly into his legacy in Alaska.
It's interesting today that has more effect, I think, on the way people understand Ted Stevens outside of Alaska than it does inside Alaska. I think his legacy inside of Alaska is so strong that people take a kind of pragmatic view toward that," he said.
U.S. Sen. Lisa Murkowski, R-Alaska, was emotional as she spoke about Stevens on Tuesday.
"I think he had lost faith in our judicial system for a period of time, and it was very hard for a man who had helped shaped the law, who had built the laws. And I think he felt abandoned by some in the Senate. You find out who your real friends are when there are difficulties. I think that hurt Ted," Murkowski said. "He was a great man and his memory will be honored for as long as I am on this earth."
She described Stevens as her mentor.
"He was pretty legendary for his gruff demeanor. (But) he was the softest touch. He was as gentle as any man, he was so loving toward his family. "
Stevens' colleagues in the Senate also remembered him for his fierce devotion to Alaska.
"We, his colleagues and his friends, were particularly blessed with the opportunity to have learned from Ted, who was always doggedly determined to serve the best interests of the people and state that he loved so much," said Sen. Joe Lieberman, I-Conn., who was a close friend to both Stevens and his wife. "Our occasional differences on legislative issues never adversely affected our abiding friendship. Ted was a giant of the United States Senate, and at a time of extreme political polarization, he inspired a spirit of bipartisanship by reaching across the aisle."
For many Alaskans, "Uncle Ted" was best known for sending billions of federal dollars to the state for military bases, bridges and rural water systems. In 2000, the Alaska Legislature joined with others in proclaiming Stevens "Alaskan of the century."
"Ted was a very close, personal friend of me and my family," said Rep. Don Young, R-Alaska, who has held his seat since 1973. "I used to baby-sit his kids, and he would baby-sit mine. He's been my mentor, first in the State Legislature, and then as our Senior Senator and I will miss him a great deal. Ted is a true Alaskan hero, and a hero for our nation."
Stevens' reputation as an unrepentant pork-barrel politician put him at odds during the 2008 election with the vice presidential campaign of Alaska's newest Republican star, then-Gov. Sarah Palin.
Palin on Tuesday recalled Stevens sitting down to lunch with her for salmon at her home two years ago.
"In our land of towering mountains and larger than life characters, none were larger than the man who in 2000 was voted 'Alaskan of the Century,' " she said. "This decorated World War II pilot was a warrior and a true champion of Alaska.
Begich, a Democrat who defeated Stevens in 2008, also praised his legacy.
"Over his four decades of public service in the U.S. Senate, Senator Stevens was a forceful advocate for Alaska who helped transform our state in the challenging years after statehood," said Begich, who lost his own father, then-U.S. Rep. Nick Begich, in a 1972 plane crash in Alaska.
In his final speech on the Senate floor in 2008, Stevens said he was most proud of transforming Alaska from an impoverished U.S. territory to a rich oil-producing state. It was his life's work, he said.
"Where there was nothing but tundra and forest, today there are now airports, roads, ports, water and sewer systems, hospitals, clinics, communications networks, research labs and much, much more," he said. "Mr. President, Alaska was not 'Seward's Folly.' "
WIFE ANN DIED IN '78 CRASH
His difficult childhood shaped the tenacious adult who, as a senator, donned an "Incredible Hulk" tie to fight his toughest battles. The second half of his life was shaped by a 1978 crash at Anchorage International Airport that killed his wife, Ann, and four others. Stevens was one of two survivors. He and his wife had five children together. He had a sixth child, Lily, with his second wife, Catherine Bittner.
Stevens' parents divorced in Chicago when he was 6, amid the 1929 stock market crash. He helped support his blind father and his grandparents in Indianapolis until his teens, then moved in with an aunt in Southern California. He kept a memento of those sunny teenage years in his Senate office: a polished wooden surfboard bought in 1940, when he was cruising the coast in his 9-year-old gold Pontiac convertible to surf the waves of San Onofre.
Stevens joined the Army Air Corps in World War II. At age 21, he was flying C-46 transports over the Himalayas to resupply Chinese nationalist troops fighting the Japanese.
He returned a decorated hero to graduate from the University of California, Los Angeles, and Harvard Law School, and he took a job with a firm in Washington, where he encountered Alaska through one of his first clients, the Usibelli Coal Mine of Healy.
The connection drew Stevens to Fairbanks, where he worked as a lawyer and federal prosecutor before returning to Washington and the Interior Department, first as an Alaska specialist, then as the department's top attorney. In 1961, with Democrats back in power, he returned to the new state, this time to Anchorage, where he practiced law and was elected to the state Legislature. He ran twice for the U.S. Senate and lost both times.
In 1967, as the Republican majority leader in the Alaska House of Representatives, Stevens steered a bill into law that allowed a governor to fill a senatorial vacancy with a candidate of either party. Before that, a new senator had to be from the same party as the old one, and Alaska had two Democratic senators. Stevens later said he had no inkling that he'd be the first to benefit from the law.
The most powerful politician of the statehood era, Democratic Sen. Bob Bartlett, died unexpectedly the next year. The Republican governor, Wally Hickel, skipped past several more prominent choices to name Stevens.
WORKHORSE, "MEAN, MISERABLE SOB"
From his arrival in the Senate in 1968, Stevens was known as the workhorse in Alaska's delegation. This was especially true in comparison with Democrat Mike Gravel, with whom he clashed loudly.
His intense focus on Alaskan issues gave Stevens expertise in budget and defense matters, and he became a respected Senate leader in those fields. By 1977 he'd risen to the leadership role of Republican whip in the Senate, and in 1984 he lost a race for majority leader to Bob Dole of Kansas by three votes. He was considered a contender for secretary of defense in 1989 under President George H.W. Bush, but the position went instead to Wyoming Rep. Dick Cheney.
In 2003, Stevens was appointed president pro tempore of the Senate, a largely ceremonial position that made him third in the line of succession to the presidency, after the vice president and the speaker of the House of Representatives.
Stevens was no great orator -- at times, his ideas seemed to spill out faster than his tongue could deliver them -- and he never became a national spokesman for his party. A social moderate and results-oriented compromiser with friends among Democrats, his Republicanism seemed old-school in the stridently partisan 1990s.
As a senior senator, he developed close relationships with defense contractors and telecommunications companies that remained largely unnoticed by constituents back home, except when he brought titans of industry to Alaska for his annual Kenai River fishing fundraiser. He seldom had good words for national conservation groups, whom he derided as "extreme environmentalists."
He became the appropriations master. As the chairman of the Senate Appropriations Committee starting in 1997, he found ways to send money north with hard-to-find attachments to budget bills. He infuriated budget watchdog groups, but he argued that Alaska needed to catch up with the rest of the nation. He developed an effective snarl.
"I'm a mean, miserable SOB," he said, introducing himself as appropriations chairman. He became known for a crotchety exterior and a temper that could flash against constituents as well as colleagues. It was something Stevens made light of, with his Incredible Hulk tie and his quip: "I didn't lose my temper. I know right where it is."
One admitted regret was his failure to accumulate personal wealth. After several investments went bad, Ted and Catherine Stevens were forced to sell their house in suburban Maryland in 1986 to pay off debts. Looking ahead to re-election two years later, Stevens said voters should appreciate the sacrifices he'd made for Alaska, because he could be making millions as a lawyer.
Those remarks struck some Alaska voters as arrogant, but by Election Day, Stevens won yet another easy victory.
Stevens' finances were rescued by a 1989 bequest from longtime friend Bill Snedden, the publisher of the Fairbanks Daily News-Miner, and later by a big payback in an Anchorage real estate investment. The Stevenses eventually bought another house in the Washington area, but their home base -- the Girdwood chalet at the center of his corruption trial -- remained decidedly modest.
"TED STEVENS WAS ALWAYS THERE"
Returning to Alaska to campaign in 2008, Stevens cited another regret in his televised debate: "A habit I got into of trusting people."
It was plainly a reference to Bill Allen, the Veco chairman and oilman who'd been the state's most visible peddler of political influence since the 1980s but whom Stevens considered a friend. Allen's unreimbursed work on the Girdwood house, and his subsequent conversations with the FBI, had brought the Justice Department down on Alaska's senior senator for unreported gifts.
The sharp ethical lines of Stevens' early career seemed to blur somewhat in the last decade. As he worked the appropriations levers, questions were raised about trusted former aides who returned as favor-seeking lobbyists, about real estate and fishery deals, and about his son Ben, who as state Senate president had a Veco contract that Allen said was all about delivering votes in Juneau.
Despite all that, Stevens was the subject of warm praise and standing ovations on April 12, 2007, when the Senate stopped work to commemorate his service of 13,990 days, making him the longest-serving Republican in U.S. history.
When Stevens exited the Senate in 2008, Sen. Mitch McConnell, R-Ky., the Senate minority leader, said this: "I think it is safe to say, without any fear of contradiction, that no senator in the history of the United States has ever done more for his state than Senator Ted Stevens."
"His commitment to the people of Alaska and his nation spanned decades, and he left a lasting mark on both," McConnell said Tuesday. "From his early military service as a pilot in World War II, to his involvement in the statehood of 'The Last Frontier,' to his fierce support and defense of our nation's military, Ted Stevens was always there, fighting for what he believed in, and usually winning. He was a force to be reckoned with, and we will miss him greatly."
UAA professor Haycox said Stevens was as big a presence in defining modern Alaska as anyone.
"Now that presence is gone and along with it Wally Hickel and Bob Atwood and Elmer Rasmuson. So Alaskans are going to have to start thinking about Alaska in a new way I think ... I think it's really analogous to losing your parents, it does have a psychological effect, it does affect the way that you see your place in the world," he said.
Erika Bolstad reported from Washington, D.C. Tom Kizzia is a former reporter for the Daily News.