Delivering the mail to Alaska has always presented a formidable challenge to the U.S. Postal Service. Letters, parcels, and supplies from the "Lower 48 states" often took weeks or months to reach their destinations. Mail dog teams varied in size, with eight to ten dogs the most common number for pulling a sled. Typical of the dog teams that have carried Alaska's mail is the string of Malamutes shown on the vintage color postcard, "Alaska Dog Team." The dogs are working with a light racing sled. On a mail run, they would haul a heavier, longer sled.
Steamships transported Alaska-bound mail north from Puget Sound in Washington to southeastern coastal towns. After reaching these towns, mail was carried to some sections of interior Alaska by river steamers and, later, by Alaska Railroad trains for delivery to smaller, outlying villages. The harsh Arctic weather and limited trail and road system also made mail delivery extremely difficult. In the more isolated sections, carrying the mail required methods far different than those traditionally used elsewhere in the United States.
Dogs proved superior for the winter transport of mail. Dogs were capable of covering long distances, day or night, and could travel over frozen lakes and rivers and pass through dense forests. The Native malamute, the Eskimo dog, or Husky were of all the same breed and was the most valued dog for teams. Malamutes were strong, with thick coats and furry paws, and thrived on dried salmon and needed no special housing. Newfoundlands, St. Bernards, setters, spaniels, and collies were also used. As in earlier frontiers, horses were also used in Alaska, but they posed special problems. Feed was costly and hard to supply and horses required special care in extreme cold.
By 1901, a network of mail trails throughout Alaska was in use, including a system that followed almost the entire length of the Yukon River. The historic 2,300-mile Iditarod Trail was the main dog trail that carried mail from Seward to Nome. Over-night roadhouses served mail carriers, freighters, and other travelers who used dog sleds or horses.
On average, dog teams pulled sleds containing between 500 – 700 pounds of mail, which meant that each dog had a load of up to 100 pounds (although they hauled less on the more challenging trails). Mail sacks usually weighed 50 pounds each. Rubber-lined waterproof bags were used to protect precious mail from snow, rain, and mud. The dogs wore moosehide moccasins to protect their feet as much as possible from jagged pieces of ice.
In 1963, the U.S. Post Office Department honored Chester Noongwook of Savoonga, on St. Lawrence Island in the Bering Sea. He was the last mail driver and with his retirement, regular sled dog mail delivery ended in Alaska.
On January 2, 2009 the U.S. Postal Service issued a new stamp commemorating Alaska's 50th anniversary as a U.S. State (Alaska became an official U.S. territory in 1912 and the 49th state on January 3, 1959). The image selected was created by Alaska Stock owner Jeff Schultz and depicts veteran sled dog racer DeeDee Jonrowe on the Iditarod trail.
Helen Hegener is an author and a documentary filmmaker specializing in long distance sled dog races and the men, women and dogs who run them. This post originally appeared on her website, Northern Light Media. It has been republished with permission.